Public health and Its Significance
Public health is the science as well as the art of making human health better by preventing disease, promoting the human health and prolonging life by such measures which are beneficial for the human health.
The health care providers are making such efforts on the individual and community level to make the health system best for the human beings. It is concerned with the threats that human body is facing regarding the health which is based on the population health analysis.
Health encompasses the state of complete mental, physical and social well-being. In any country or region health is an important factor in the development of the countries.
History of Public health
Public health is importance since ancient times when the people suffered from diseases due to the polluted water having waste material. In that times the people according to their understandings and thoughts design such ways to prevent the spread of the epidemic diseases in the region.
Public health is important because of various reasons.It helps to prevent and manage the several diseases, injuries, and other health problems. There are several methods to prevent certain diseases. Also, ailments which do not requires specific treatment strategy, and the person gets healthy with certain tips. Public health plays an important role in the developing countries as well as the developed countries.
World health organization is the global department that controls the public health issues. Most of the countries have their health department and ministries that organize that completely controls the health system of the country.
For example, in the United States of the America, Center for Disease control and prevention are involved in the health activities that are beneficial for the human beings.
Public health programs by world health organization
The public health program is necessary for any country because it plays the key role in providing the citizens with the best lifestyle. The World health organization has designed the layout for this program that is helpful for the nation. The main features of the programs include:
- The provision of the leadership on matters critical to the health and involved in the partnership where the government and organization considered that joint venture is required.
- Research agenda is very important in any department. Similarly, for WHO, it is important to stimulate, generate and disseminate the valuable knowledge.
- Setting of the standards and the norms for the promotion as well as monitoring the implementation of the program.
- It is also important to articulate the ethical as well as evidenced based policy matters.
- Monitoring and assessment of the health issues are also a necessary part of the WHO public health program.
Public health surveillance
It is the continuous, systemic collection, interpretation and health analysis related data that is required for the planning, implementation, and evaluation of the overall health practice. The surveillance is based on
- Early warning system for the public health emergencies.
- There is need to document the impact of the intervention and tracking the progress of the required goals.
- Clarification as well as the monitoring of the health issues epidemiology to set the priorities as well as to inform the public about the strategies related to the health.
Careers based on public health
Those who are willing to do something at health department and want to serve the nation, they can apply in following fields
- National, local and state government department
- Local health agencies
- Private health based foundations and organizations
- Faith-based organization
- Insurance companies.
Departments where the person can practice public health
The person who is willing to practice his public health education can apply in following areas.
- Community health worker
- Disease Investigator
- Public health analyst and educator
- Public health information officer and coordinator.
Core disciplines of public health
There are more than 20 fields in this area, but five are the core disciplines. These includes
Public health professionals develop and analyze such programs for the individuals to keep them healthy. They work for the development of the healthy lifestyle, research, and program implementation. The professional keep on working for the health promotion. The public health workforce is a priority in the United States of the America as well as other developed countries to study about all the health issues and special development to prevent certain diseases. Biostatistics is the vast field of the calculation and measurements. It helps the students to learn about the
- Environmental Science
- Public health.
In all fields, there is the need for the particular data for the research purpose. The main task in this discipline includes
- Analyzing the effectiveness of the medicine
- Study of risk factor for different ailments
- Planning of the interventions related to health care
- Explanation of the biological phenomenon
It is the best career for those who love to do calculations and measurements and also have a keen interest in medicine or biological studies. The collection of the data and creating scenarios and drawing a conclusion at the end is the main aspect of the field that can help in various aspect of the public health.
This is another important discipline of the public health which focuses on the heath promotion and the development in the various fields of the health department. When certain infections like food poisoning or the influenza present in the society widely then the epidemiologist play their role by investigating the cause of the infection and judge that how to control the spreading of the disease. The students and the professionals both do field work to reach to the causative agents as well as make such strategies which show the treatment of the ailment. They know well about the demographic as well as the social trend of the disease and the infection.
Some of the discoveries like mad cow disease or influenza are made by an epidemiologist who studies thoroughly about the pathogens involved in spreading of the infections. The epidemiologist also uses statistical data to create the conclusion, but their strategy is entirely different from the professional who studies biostatistics in the field of the public health. The epidemiologist studies about the following factors
- Biotechnological aspects in the field.
- Environmental health
The public health also requires the cleaning of the environment as some infections like cold, influenza; diarrhea occurs because of the unhygienic environment. The professionals belong to this field study about al the aspects and the factors necessary for the health of human beings. The natural and the human-made environment both are affecting the health and causing serious diseases. Asthma, food poisoning and cancer are some of the ailments which occur because of the bad environmental conditions. The environmental public health includes the studies of
- Spanning chemistry
It is the vast and the complex field the public health professionals work in collaboration with other professionals like meteorologist, biologist, engineers and physicians to compile the complete data for the best solution for the disease treatment. Environmental professional agencies are the professionals who have studied the environmental sciences for the research and the development system.
- Behavioral Sciences
Health education is not only important for the professionals, but it is the duty of the government to implement such programs that are for layman also so that he can get all the related information for certain infections and the ailments which may cause serious harm to the health. The person seeking education in this department can get an opportunity in the government as well as the public sector to practice his field related to the public health. These professional design such educational and awareness programs that help the citizens to learn about the disease, its cause, symptoms, and the treatment strategies. The people get awareness about the disease and come to know that when they should visit the doctor if the ailment is taking a serious position. The professional can helps the community in several ways
- Guide the public related to the sexually transmitted diseases like AIDS.
- Recognition and guidance about the unprotected sex
- Misuse of alcohol and its side effects
- Awareness about obesity and its treatment plans
- Guidelines to improve the quality of the life
- Investigation and promotion of health care programs that may include the prohibition of smoking, water, and sanitation projects as well as occupational safety measurements.
- These professionals also involved in the research department to provide the better clinical practices as well as to perform best in the society by inventing high technology products that are safe and best fro the treatment of a variety of diseases.
- Health’s service education
It is the field with the combination of the business, science, and policy. It is also the vast field that involves the following features
- Management of the database in the clinics
- Setting the budget for health care system
- Creation of the policies for the health insurance departments.
- Implementing such hospital services that can facilitate the patients.
The different specialization in this area includes
- Policy information
The education sector in the public health plays a vital role as it can educate as well as guide the layman related to all aspects of the infections prevailing in the society. They help the public to prevent against such diseases and also provides them information to prevent themselves in future from the susceptible causative agents.
Other disciplines for the public health
The other disciplines where the public health playsuits part and helps the people to live a high standard life full of freshness and health.
International global health depicts the health of people living in the small or the low areas like villages. There are a variety of diseases exist in these regions that include hepatitis, tuberculosis, sexually transmitted disease and other infections.. the people are also suffering from the age-related illness. Global public health also focuses on the health conditions like trauma, depression, violence and displacement.
The organization, management, and the finance are three important components of the global health system. The professionals involved in this field are doing research and trying to implement such methods to make the world better place to live.
In any field the complete workforce is important, the same is the case with the public health department, the laboratory management includes the technician who is specialized in the field of microbiology, biochemist, bacteriologist and the person with another relevant degree. The United States and the other countries focus on the complete team of the public health department so that all the staff can perform well to give the world safe methods for the treatment of various diseases.
Child and maternal health
In any health care unit, mother and child health is very important. There are regions in the world where there is no care for maternal mothers and newborn kids, WHO and other organizations are trying to remove such cases and educating the professionals in this field so that the death ratio declines to zero and the mother can give the safe birth to the child.
These professionals also focus on the sexual health care, guidelines to mother related to the pregnancy and vaccination of the children. The family planning guidelines also come under this discipline. The professionals do research, learn different courses and pass the exams in the relevant field to join the maternity and child care department. The design and plan such strategies on local, state or the federal level to provide the better health care system.
The eating habits and the type of the food person intake on a daily basis have the great impact on the health and the lifestyle. The nutritionist and dietitians are the public health professionals who study about the food and their nutritional facts. They play an important role in the setting of the diet plan for the patients suffering from various disease conditions like Diabetes, heart problems, stroke, hypertension, obesity and respiratory infections. The nutritionist also focuses on educating the public about the quality of food, and the compatibility of the food with certain diseases as well as the medicines. They guide about the drug-food interaction and the choice of the right meal at the right time. The different areas of the practice includes
- Designing of different nutritional therapies in certain diseases states.
- Development of the nutritional programs to educate the nation
- Implementing public awareness programs related to the food and the nutrition.
- The correction of the food labels
- Ensuring the safety standards of the food
- Research on various foods and their effects on the health.
The public health nutritionist also works with certain food manufacturers to maintain the quality and the standard of the food. The best quality food plays an important role in the life, the person taking the pure and hygienic food can remain safe from the infections caused due to the unhygienic and poor quality foods.
Occupational health and safety
These are important members of the society who are always ready to serve those people who meet any emergency during the work. They are the specialized and trained staff of the public health that provides prevention against any accidents as well as promote the health and safety within the organization. They implement such designs to control, prevent and eliminate the health hazards caused due to some chemical or biological agents. They perform the safety inspection and also make decisions in changing furniture of an organization that is not ergonomically designed. They work according to the policies and laws that are helpful in preventing people from any health hazards during the working hours.
Functions of public health department
The public health department is the broad area in any country that is working many tasks at one time. They have many duties to perform to ensure the best health of each and every citizen residing in the country. The World Health Organization is playing an important part in developing such strategies and the plans that are helpful for creating the healthy system in any region. They follow different laws and health policies beneficial for the country. Most of the countries follow the WHO health guidelines to create the best health setup. The public health professionals work in following departments of the country.
Public health agencies
Each country has its public health agencies which work as a team to plan such strategies to cover up all the issues related to all type of disease issues as well as the health problems that the country is facing.
The public health department works in the triangle form that is doctor, pharmacist, and nurse. In any health care units, the triangle is necessary, as the doctor play a role in the diagnosis while pharmacist provides the treatment strategies and nurse cares the patient according to the instructions of the doctor and the pharmacist. These three are important parameters of the health units. The system is incomplete if any of the health care providers is missing.
Public safety agencies
There are certain agencies which usually work on a private basis to save the person in any accident or emergency situations. Such agencies provide ambulance usually free of cost or charge very low fair. They also provide such tools to any organization which is required for the safety and prevention of the employees.
Education and youth development organization
Educating the youth and the citizens is important nowadays. The public health providers implement such strategies to guide the youth about different situations related to the health and their effect. For example, teenagers are unaware of hazards caused by the smoking or drinking alcohol as well as other drugs that can make them addictive. Such organizations try to educate the people especially students n the school or universities level to keep the youngsters away from such addictive agents.
Economic and philanthropic organization
These are organizations which usually work free of cost, and the main purpose is to donate to the helpers. They are not only involved in donating the needy person but also have some departments which organize free blood donating camps and serve the poor by providing them with some hospital facilities. It is to help the people who cannot afford the blood during the need of the hour or wheelchair required to keep the life on track. The companies also organize such programs to collect charity for different hospitals, health care units or the departments which are serving humanity only to provide help to the needy people.
Environmental agencies and organizations
The healthy environment in any state is important to keep the citizens free from infections. The health care providers work in such organizations which study about all the environment factors that may cause serious diseases. The main aim of the department is to eliminate such unhygienic factors from the society that are playing a role in creating the health problems.
Classification of the public health system
The public health system is organized in four classes so that each department can control the area assign to it. The classification includes
The fiscal decisions are made by the local health department. It is in control of the local or decentralized government officers.
There is no specification some departments are under the control of local government while other is in control of the centralized government.
The federal or the state government is responsible for all the policies and decisions regarding the health care system
The local health departments are under the control of the state as well as the local authorities. Both with coordination with each other design plan and strategies to produce the excellent health system.
Ten best public health services
The public health department provides following incredible health services to the citizens to give the best health structure to the nation.
- Monitoring health status
The department involves the accurate and the periodic assessment of the health status of the country. The health providers identify the health risk, pay attention to the important statistics and disparities. They also work for the identification of the resources and assets useful for the health of the public. The public health providers used certain data and technology methods to interpret and communicate data from all the resources. They also maintain all the population health registries so that in the case of any emergency the data is available immediately. So the department monitors each and every aspect related to the public health.
- Diagnosis of health problems
In any country, an alarming situation occurs if some disease occurs with the unknown reason, in such condition the health care department set the emergency investigation of the cause of the disease so that the quick solution is implemented for the removal of such infection from the country. They identify the threats within a short period of the time. The laboratories are well equipped so that proper investigation can be made to diagnose the infectious agent. They design the plans and interpret data to remove the alarming threats from the country. The developed countries have specialized laboratories to overcome the situation in a short period of the time, but the underdeveloped countries need much attention in such situation as they suffer from much mortality rates during these emergency and life threatening situations.
- Educating people related to health issues
Education is an important aspect in any department. Each and every organization has special educational and training [programs so that to polish their staff members as well as to make them aware of the latest technology going in trend. Same is the case with the public health department they educate not only their staff related to the latest health policies and technology as well as arrange different educational programs through television social media or visits different institute to make the puv]blic aware of certain health issues which everyone needs to know. It has the following advantage
- Build knowledge to shape the attitude of the public
- Information related to the decision making choices
- Development of the skills and behaviors for healthy livings.
- Mobilization of community partnership
The partnership is necessary for any health care system. The different organization works together to develop the strong health care unit in the country. For example, the hospital gets integration or partnership with the pharmaceutical companies to provide them medicines for both the needy as well as the patients who can afford their medicines. In this way, the strong relationship develops. In this way both the partners can identify each other’s behaviors as well as there is the consistency development between the partners.
- Development of policies
For the success of any department, there is the need for the development of the right and accurate policies according to the rules and the regulations implemented by the government. The health care providers also design such policies which follow the WHO guidelines as well government regulations to provide the best system to the public. The policies involves
- Emergency response planning
- Alignment of resources in such a way to ensure the successful
- The planning related to the community and the state improvement.
- Enforcement of laws and regulations
Legal authorities, law, and regulations are important for the success of the department. In health care unit the enforcement of such laws is important as they play a vital role in providing the public such facilities that can meet their health requirement. It is also important to educate the staff about the regulations and laws necessary to practice in the field because the proper understanding of these laws enables the health care unit to get success and provides the essentials services to the nation.
- Linking people to health services
It is important to identify such people who are not linked to the health department. It is good to identify the public who are suffering from the barriers in the care. It is the duty of the health system to enter such person in a coordinated system of the clinical care. The care management is an important part of the health sector; the staff has to maintain the facilities and the services that are useful for each and every person in the country. The maintenance of transportation and emergency diagnostic kits is also the responsibility of the department.
- Preparing the workforce for health care system
The personal, competent and the talented workforce is necessary for any health care department. It is required to have the complete workforce in any organization so that there is no trouble in completing any step during the time of the treatment. It is good to equipped the laboratories with the latest chemicals and instruments as well as the laboratory technicians are well trained to provide the effective services to their clients. The staff members and the healthcare providers have degrees and license to practice in the health care units.
- Evaluation of effectiveness
It is important for the success of the health care department. It is the duty of the government or the policy makers to evaluate the system properly. If there is need of any new service, it must be fulfilled immediately so that no patient can face any issue during the visit in the health unit. The public health provider completely examines and evaluates the equipment, skills of the workforce as well as the facilities that health system provides to the public to ensure the bets possible services.
- Research for new insights
Research and development are the both of the important services that every health unit requires. With the advancement in the technology, there are various equipment, machines, medicines, and instruments are designed which provides the marvelous services to the patients as well as the needy people. It can help in identification of innovative solution as well as the monitoring of the cutting edge research helpful for advance public health.
The research will be great for the epidemiological analysis, health studies, and public health system research.
All the services provided by the health care system are awesome and useful to make the society free from any infection and to develop the better setup in the region to make people happy and satisfied.
Fiscal responsibilities of the public health department
Besides of the essential responsibilities that the health system performs for the public, there are certain fiscal duties which are the responsibility of the local or the state government to fulfil and make the policies according to the requirement. The main roles includes
Budget approval recommendation
The officials working in the government health sector has the responsibility to recommend the overall budget required to meet the requirements of the health needs so that there is no issue related to the budget in future or any emergency situation. It is good to make the checklist of all the recommendations so that there is no missing at the end of the application.
Approving of the budget
The recommended budget list is shifted to the department responsible for the approval of the budget required for the health care system. Usually, it is the big amount to meet the requirement of the country. Unfortunately, there are some countries whose government does not focus on the health budget and have a poor health system in the country.
Identifying the funding source
The budget for the public health department is issued from the finance ministry of the country as well as some organizations also support the government to complete the budget strategies so that there is no issue related to the budget as it is the matter of the public health and satisfaction.
The fee related to the health departments and other important areas also come under the responsibility of the local or the state government. There are certain departments and banks which receive fee-related to the health sectors.
Approving of the grant application
The applications for the various purpose of installation of new equipment, approval of new medicines or research methodology is also the fiscal duty of the government health department. It is important to approve the grant application for the sake of betterment of the country.
Ten-year report of public health by WHO
The ten-year public health report 2007 to 2017 indicates successes, setbacks, and challenges during this time. The time was challenging, and different health organizations worked together to cope up with the situations.
Progress during ten years
- These years show the tremendous success, health and life expectancy is improving day by day. The medications for malaria and hepatitis have saved the lives of the people.
- The survey has shown that about 49 million lives are saved for the people suffering from the TB, it is the remarkable change in the health sector.
- The number of child death dropped below 6 million; it is the lowest number in the history of the health department. Since 1990 it is the fifty percent decrease in the death rate of the children.
- The organized system is now able to calculate the exact mortality rates as well as the number of lives saved during this period.
- In the 21st century, the world is facing the many health challenges, the rapid urbanization, demographic aging and marketing of unhealthy products.
- The government and the organizations are making such strategies to combat with diseases like diabetes, heart attacks, stroke and respiratory disease. It is an excellent way to improve the longevity and healthy life.
- The other important steps that took over the years are the health of the women, their needs and requirements and investment for women all are incredible aspects that the political parties showed for the women.
- During these years, the new health emergencies programs were developed especially for the Ebola viral infection and showed the more quick response for the infection.
- The research and development took place during this span to produce the vaccine for the 100 percent cure of this harmful infection.
- World health organization played an important role for those people who are denied because of some social or other unfair cause. Health is the main issue in every country and WHO is trying to fight against all the diseases that need the proper attention for the prevention and the cure.
The public health department is vast and playing the beneficial as well as the key role in the management, organizing, and maintain cancer of such policies that is essential for the better health of the citizens. The public health professionals are determined, entheastic, courage skilled and talented who are serving nation to keep them healthy, satisfied and happy. The developed countries like the United States of America have many facilities for the citizens. Unfortunately, underdeveloped countries do not have proper services and management programs to cope up with the serious infections and diseases. A country like Pakistan is still facing the polio problem which is a depressing situation.
The government and the health unit along with the collaboration with the WHO must implement such policies that are beneficial for the underdeveloped countries so that the people from such states are also able to get the best health and the peaceful life. A well-functioning public health sector shows the effective communication and partnership. They have wide objectives that can meet the requirement of the system. The resource sharing and the government policies are effective for the successful and the stable system. The public health department is an important organization that is playing best and effective roles for the purpose to provide the safe and good life to the human beings.